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Wild Edible Plants
Benefits, Hazards, and Major Groups

wild edible plants salmonberry

By Filip Tkaczyk

We are surrounded by wild edible plants every day. In trying to learn about them, you might quickly feel overwhelmed by the staggering amount of information available. Here are some important consideration for getting started:

- Identifying Plants
- Benefits
- Hazards
- Major Groupings

Identifying Wild Edible Plants

It is vital that you can identify the wild edible plants that you intend to utilize. Some edible plants have deadly poisonous look-alikes. Good field guides are invaluable. The best guides clearly explain identification, collection, and preparation techniques. We highly recommend the following guides:

- Identifying and Harvesting Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants by Steve Brill
- Discovering Wild Plants by Janice Schofield

Benefits

Wild edible plants are very beneficial for you and your family for many reasons. First of all, there are wild edibles growing near you no matter what part of the world you live in. Chances are good, you can find a large number of species where you live and some of them are likely to be plentiful.

Secondly, many wild plants are highly nutritious and can be even more nutritious than many store bought fruits and vegetables. For instance, dandelion which you might think of as little more than a garden-variety weed is actually an incredibly nutritious wild edible plant. In a single hundred gram amount of cooked dandelion greens, there is 11,000 mg of Potassium, 18 mg of vitamin C and 42 mg of calcium.

You might consider eating the dandelions in your yard, rather than removing or poisoning them. Though if you are going to consume edible plants, make sure you also consider the hazards.

Hazards

There are some dangers in collecting and eating wild edibles. To begin with, think about the location you are gathering and consider the following:

- Is the area sprayed with pesticides or herbicides?

- Is the area close to a busy road or other source of pollution?

- Does your target species have any poisonous look-alikes?

Also consider that because wild edible plants are often more nutritionally concentrated than store bought foods - you may not need to eat as much quantity as you would of foods from home. It is also wise to start off eating very small quantities of wild edible plants, especially those you have not tried before, in case of potential allergic reactions. Test them before you collect or eat large quantities.

Also, the hazard that many people forget to consider, and it is one of the most important, is the hazard you pose to the plants themselves!

Please practice wise and sustainable harvesting techniques. Consider the needs of the plants and the other animals that might feed on them.

If the plant you are harvesting is rare, or is the only one of its kind in the location you are at, or especially if the plant is endangered, then leave it alone!

Look for places where the species you are interested in is plentiful. Also look for plants that have abundant fruit, nuts, or berries. This will make your job of gathering less work and also, if you are considerate, it will leave less of an impact on the land. A good guideline is to collect one third of the plant material, leaving two thirds for plant regeneration and wildlife.

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Major Groupings of Wild Edible Plants

There are so many different kinds of wild plants out there in the world. It can really help to initially lump them into more manageable groups that share characteristics, so that you can get to know them more easily. Here are some of the major groups of wild edibles, organized by plant families:

The Lily Family (Liliaceae): This includes species such as:

- Wild onions
- Wild garlic
- Wild leeks
- Camas
- Glacier lilies

The Purslane Family (Portulacaceae): This includes:

- Miner's Lettuce
- Spring Beauty

The Rose Family (Rosaceae): This includes edible plants such as:

- Blackberry
- Raspberry
- Salmonberry
- Thimbleberry
- Wild roses
- Hawthorn
- Serviceberry
- Choke-cherry
- Wild strawberry
- Silverweed

The Heath Family (Ericaceae): This includes species such as:

- Cranberry
- Blueberry
- Huckleberry

The Mustard Family (Brassicaceae): This includes plants such as:

- Pennycress
- Shepard's purse
- Watercress

The Mint Family (Lamiaceae): This includes wild edibles such as:

- Wild mint
- Self-heal

The Sunflower Family (Asteraceae): This includes species such as:

- Dandelion
- Wild sunflower
- Salsify
- Chicory
- Pineapple weed
- Oxeye daisy
- Common burdock
- Thistle species

The Nettle Family (Urticaceae): This includes:

- Stinging nettle

The Cattail Family (Typhaceae): This includes:

- Narrow-leaf and broad-leaved cattail

The Beech Family (Fagaceae): This includes:

- Oaks
- Chestnuts
- Beeches

The Pine Family (Pinaceae): This includes trees such as:

- Pine
- Hemlock
- Douglas-fir
- Spruce


With proper identification and careful consideration of safety & potential hazards, edible wild plants can become an exciting and healthful part of your diet. Happy foraging!

By the way, when you're out foraging for wild plants and mushrooms, it's important to know how to stay safe in the outdoors, especially if you were to get lost. Right now you can get a free copy of our mini survival guide here, where you'll discover six key strategies for outdoor emergencies, plus often-overlooked survival tips.



Additional Resources:

Foraging for Edible Wild Plants - Mother Earth News


Related Courses:

Wild Edible & Medicinal Plants Courses



Filip Tkaczyk

About the Author: Filip Tkaczyk is a periodic guest teacher at Alderleaf. He also wrote the field guide Tracks & Sign of Reptiles & Amphibians. Learn more about Filip Tkaczyk.



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