by Filip Tkaczyk
Understanding what freshwater ecosystems are and how they function can help you better utilize a pond in the practice of permaculture, a system of sustainable design. Though fresh water only makes up less than 3% of all the water on earth, it is essential to human life and to the lives of countless other organisms. Keeping these systems healthy, properly working with them to grow food, process waste and create habitat vital to many types of animals is essential.
Ponds are complex systems of energy exchange between one kind of life form and another. A simplified version of this food web might go something like this:
Of course, relationships in ponds are much more complicated than this and involve many more kinds of connections.
Whether you have a pond on your property or wish to create one. Find a pond somewhere in your general area and visit it regularly, you can learn a great deal of information about it from your own observations. Make regular records of your observations throughout the year and make sure to especially include the following categories: temperature of air & water, plant growth and decay, insects, amphibians and reptiles, fish, birds, mammals, water levels and flow, wind, weather, sunlight and human influences. It is vital to record this information as it can help you avoid or minimize negative impacts on the pond, as well as maximize possible growth of plants, fish or other resources. Remember to continue making observations and recording information after you make any changes to a pond.
Ponds are freshwater ecosystems that can be tremendously useful in permaculture practice. They can provide food, medicine, water storage, sun reflection (heat and light), filtration for waste, recreation and aesthetic value. A variety of edible species of plants can be grown in and around the margins of a pond, depending on the local climate. Many different edible fish species can be raised in a pond. If properly managed, a pond can also produce a great deal of food and materials which can be sold or bartered to create income.
Ponds can be designed to a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on need and available resources and on-site considerations. Some considerations to take into account are:
When intending to create a pond, it is vital to consider the health of this freshwater ecosystem. Remember that ponds are complex ecosystems, and keeping all parts healthy and functioning is important. Since ponds – no matter how small or large – are just a part of a much bigger working system, it is important to create one that will benefit the larger freshwater ecosystem in your area. Take special care to create habitat for local wildlife such as amphibians, native fish, birds and other life forms. A properly designed and implemented pond can be a productive source of food and materials for humans as well as a benefit to local life and your greater local freshwater ecosystem. Please contact your local fish and wildlife service and other conservation organizations for permits, special rules and laws as well as local considerations concerning ponds and pond life.
To learn more about permaculture, a design system for sustainable living, check out the Permaculture Design Course.